Onegevity Intro-- The First Webinar In Our New Series
We made a webinar series on our Youtube channel for you to listen and learn about the most compelling research on your gut microbiome. This webinar is the first in the series. Guy Daniels, head of medical education at Onegevity, talks about the exponential research being conducted on our crucial microbiome ecosystem, the advances from 16s to next-generation metagenomic sequencing, and how Gutbio uses the latest research and best technology for your reports.
When this webinar series is complete, is will be the largest repository of microbiome data from an integrative perspective. Listen to webinar #1 here!
Guy Daniels: 00:00 On behalf of Onegevity, I'd like to welcome you to our first of many webinars. My name is Guy Daniels. I head up medical education at Onegevity. Among other things, today, we're going to lay our foundation of knowledge. This webinar will cover some basics of the microbiome, who we are, what we do, and how we can help.
Guy Daniels: 00:22 You're here because you're interested in the microbiome and your health, and who can blame you. The interest has been growing exponentially over the past years, both from the scientific and medical communities as well. In fact, we look back in 2007 there are approximately 100 papers published on the gut microbiome in the scientific literature. If you look just back to 2018 there were almost 5,000 public published papers on the microbiome and all of this interest is justifiable. There have been numerous papers published connecting the gut microbiome to health or the lack thereof.
Guy Daniels: 00:59 On the left-hand side of this screen, you'll see that I have listed a number of conditions where there's an enormous amount of literature supporting the connection between the microbiome and the development of these conditions, whether it's autoimmune, metabolic and the list goes on. In fact, we'll cover most of these in the webinars to come, and so as you can understand, many people, the medical community and the scientific community is very interested in the connection between the two. In fact, you yourself or a loved one may suffer from one or more of these conditions. Our Gut microbiome consists mostly of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and archaea. I thought I'd try to impress the importance of the microbiome on you with some powerful statistics. For example, on the first point, if you look at just the bacteria alone, the number of their cells is thought to be roughly 10 times the number of your cells in your human body.
Guy Daniels: 01:55 When you look at the DNA content, the DNA content of the bacterial cells in your microbiome is thought to be roughly 100 times the total DNA content in your cells. If we have a look at enzymes, we produce approximately only 17 different enzymes in the GI tract, whereas the microbiome produces thousands and they're able to digest compounds that we are not. Depending on who you referenced, which is a common theme in the scientific literature, especially true for the microbiome, each individual harbors anywhere from a few hundred species to up to 1800 as we show in our data. Some of the species are the same, some are different, and there are a lot of variables to take into consideration. And humans as a whole-- thousands of species have been detected. We show up to over 9,400. To appreciate the microbiome is also to appreciate their home, our gastrointestinal tract. For example, if you look at the first point, the GI tract requires up to 40% of the daily body's expenditure.
Guy Daniels: 03:00 This is in large part due to the fact that the intestinal epithelium, the cells that line the GI tract turn over roughly every five days on average. We also consume an enormous amount of food into the GI tract. In fact, we don't treat our GI tracts very well. And with this, if we eventually have dysbiosis through food or through some other lifestyle method, then we may have dysbiosis and GI permeability which can expose this enormous immune system which lines the gut, which is point number four, to foreign proteins and possible pathogens. So we have again, the largest immune component in the body is actually centered around the gut. In addition to that, we have 15 different types of GI endocrine cells. They may only represent about 1% of all the cells in the GI tract, but since the GI tract is so large as a whole, they represent the largest endocrine organ in the body. And when you think endocrine think hormones are secreting.
Guy Daniels: 04:00 I have a picture of a tennis court to the right to represent the fact that it is thought that the surface area of the GI tract, mostly due to the small intestine is equal to that greater than a doubles tennis court. So again, as I mentioned, we don't treat our bodies particularly well in regards to our GI tract, especially. And on the left-hand side, I've listed a number of different foods in other things we can take into our bodies that impact the GI tract. I have personally read over a thousand papers in regards to the gastrointestinal tract and the microbiome, and this is just a shortlist. There's an enormous amount of data out there, so keep in mind that everything that goes down the throat, whether it's food or drugs or something else impacts the gut microbiome for better or for worse. On the right-hand side, you'll see a little shot from a paper that talks about the obvious such as antibiotics, the impact of the microbiome, but other things you probably don't think about as well, such as heavy metals, pesticides and so forth.
Guy Daniels: 04:57 And in regard to papers that will be referenced. If you look at the bottom center, you'll always see the title of the paper I'm deriving any sources from on for that particular slide. Now we have a lot of microbiomes in the body. For example, we have a microbiome on our skin, and there's a microbiome in the mouth, in the microbiome, changes down the GI tract as we go from the very beginning to the very end. So the microbiome that's representative in the mouth is not necessarily the same as what's in the stomach, or what's in the duodenum. The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine right after the stomach. So as you can appreciate the fact that it's a lot of HCL, which is acid, pancreatic enzymes, bile salts, and quicker motility in the small intestine, especially in the duodenum as compared to the large intestine. So different bacteria are able to inhabit different regions of the gut based on different circumstances. So again, this microbiome variability changes as we go through the GI tract.
Guy Daniels: 05:57 Which brings us to fecal processing. We offer a simple at-home fecal collection kit. It's very practical. You don't have to jump through any hoops, but there are a few points we should probably cover — one, in regards to the collection of your sample. Two, in regards to the mucosal and luminal component, how accurate is that fecal sampling? And three, the difference in sequencing methodology to yield accurate, actionable results. So, for example, for point number one, I guess that really depends on how squeamish you are or not. If you feel that you can only have one collection site from your fecal sample to put into the collection tube, then that's perfectly fine. If you can go from multiple sites, then all the more power to you. Clinical data shows that whether it's one collection site or multiple collection sites, there is no significant difference in the ultimate end result. And we certainly don't expect you to homogenize your fecal sample, which is basically putting in a blender and then taking a sample from that.
Guy Daniels: 07:01 In regards to this mucosal and luminal business, different bacteria reside in different portions of the same region. So for example, there are some bacteria that like to hang out in the mucus that lines the gut, whereas there are other bacteria that reside in the lumen, which is basically the hollow portion of the tube. So you can make an argument that those two portions of the GI tract are different and result in different representations of bacteria when sequenced. And the third thing we want to address here is the difference in sequencing methodology. So let's address point number two as soon as you've already tackled number one.
Guy Daniels: 07:38 So this particular study here shows that there's no significant difference in the mucosal sampling versus the luminal or fecal sampling. And of course, there are studies that show quite the opposite as well. But the bottom line is, is that we can collect from the fecal sampling that's convenient for you-- reliable, actionable information. And in fact, in the literature, most of the samplings have been simple fecal collections. And it's given us a great amount of insight into the goings-on inside the microbiome. The next point I'd like to make in regards to this mucosal bacteria versus the luminal bacteria is it's simply not practical to go after the mucosal bacteria. So we would actually have to have a colon prep thing, colonoscopy and that's extremely invasive, extremely expensive and significantly changes the balance of bugs that are present for the fecal sampling. So once again, we offer you a simple at-home fecal collection kit, which is going to provide actionable results. Now, this has been done many times over and in many studies over the years and historically through the years, the past bunch of years has been the 16s technology and the 16s technology has brought us a lot of great data.
Guy Daniels: 08:53 We've learned an enormous amount about the microbiome over the past bunch of years using this technology, but it is an older technology, and in fact, most of the references I'll be citing and all these webinars have actually used the 16s technology. And it has its advantages. It's cost-effective, and there's a large body of archive data for referencing because it's been used so prevalent. However, the major drawback is that it uses primers that recognize highly conserved regions of genes. And this means that it's not fully sequenced, whereas the genes and ultimately the species are predicted. And so that's an enormous disadvantage and something worth considering. So if you look at the upside-down triangle in the lower right of the slide, you'll see that the very bottom is species, and right above that is this thing called genus. So depending on the genus, that could be one species, there could be many species within that genus.
Guy Daniels: 09:51 The major drawback, again of the 16s technology, is its inability to accurately drill down into that species level. And so what we're left with is conflicting data at the genus level. Why is that important? Well, there are many genera out there, whether its Dialister, Blautia, Veillonella, Prevotella, Oscillibacter and so forth. There's an enormous amount of data out there where roughly depending on the genus, the data is equally split. So some of the data will show that this genus might be bad for you and some of the data will show this genus might be good for you, and that is due to the fact that the 16s technology has not been able to drill down to the species level. And that's where we come in, and that's where we're different. We perform whole genome sequencing, Aka shotgun, metagenomics, and so we're able to drill down to the species level and lower with an enormous accuracy to get down and distinguish what's going on at this species level.
Guy Daniels: 10:55 In addition to that, we can identify viruses, fungi, and protozoa. And when I say protozoa, I think parasites, in fact, we can even tell you what you ate. So I'm going to use the genus streptococcus as a great example here. So within streptococcus, there are two species that we use as probiotics. So you would think, okay, this is a very good genus-- if you're looking at it from that perspective. There are also species within streptococcus that are present normally in the mouth and also in the stomach, and they don't cause any problems when they're present in those two locations. So you would think it's still a fairly innocuous genus. But then there are also species within the genus streptococcus that are rather nefarious, and they can be responsible for a strep throat, pink eye meningitis, pneumonia, and flesh-eating bacteria. So the data can be highly variable, and we need to be able to drill down to the species level.
Guy Daniels: 11:52 And so that's, we are with our technology and welcome to the tip of the spear in the microbiome world. So who are we at the tip of the spear? We're a group of highly published dynamic experts in their respective field. Whether it's artificial intelligence, data analytics, supplement manufacturing. We're integrative medicine. We use a proprietary platform to assess numerous data points and depending on the platform you choose, whether it's one that's available now or one available in the future, those data points will include fecal, blood, DNA, and a comprehensive questionnaire. Our Algorithms provide you with personalized precision wellness. Our recommendations are unique to you, which include dietary, supplement, and lifestyle.
Guy Daniels: 12:45 A meticulous review of the literature combined with our clinical experience is the glue that brings all this together. We are looking at connections on an unprecedented scale. For example, on this slide you're looking at here, I'm sure many of you know about the connections of NSAID use to ulcers and death as you can see here. But what you probably don't know is that research also shows that when you have the right balance of bacteria in the microbiome, it prevents these ulcers from forming. So what's happening is that the mucus degradation from the NSAIDs in a healthy gut leads to less inflammation than in the gut with more opportunistic pathogens. A topic of a webinar down the road. In this particular slide on antipsychotics, PPIs and so forth, these researchers looked at over 1000 drug compounds, 27% of which were these non-antibiotic drugs. Drugs such as antipsychotics and PPIs, which are in widespread use, had direct antibacterial effects. But even worse news is that their effects were even more so on the good bugs than on the not so good bugs. So as time goes on to these webinars, as you look to the left-hand side of this slide, I can read through and tell you that some of these bugs are really good players like Roseburia intestinalis and so forth. These particular drugs tended to impact those good players much more so than the potential opportunistic pathogens such as those that come from the gammaproteobacterial.
Guy Daniels: 14:25 Another thing we consider is something like this study, which was just published this June . This study looks at Parkinson's and the drug levodopa that's given to treat Parkinson's. It's been known for some time that different patients respond variably to the drug and so these particular researchers found, and I'm going to skip a lot of complex information in regards to enzymes and so forth, that two different species, and again, I come back to this species versus genus conversation, we're able to drill down to the species level effectively two different species of enterococcus: Enterococcus Faecalis and Faecium we're responsible for degrading the drug levodopa. So if recommendations can be made to alter the microbiome such that more levodopa could reach the brain, it could then lead to better drug response. In reviewing the many published scientific papers that I mentioned earlier, we have to take into account a great many variables, of course, human data that has recently been published is paramount importance, and that's mostly what I'll be presenting to you in this webinar series.
Guy Daniels: 15:37 But we also referenced some animal and in vitro data as well. The overall goal is to derive answers and solutions as best we can, even when the data appears muddy. When this webinar series is complete, it will be the largest repository of microbiome data from an integrative perspective. On the right-hand side of the screen, you'll see that I've categorized them into compounds, concepts, conditions, diet, prebiotics, and the many important taxa which have been shown to play significant roles in the gut microbiome. For better or for worse. In our next webinar, we'll start at the beginning, our initial introduction in life-- an establishment of the gut microbiome. And although we can't change the past, it offers up excellent information as to the why's, wherefores, where we are, and what we need to do. So until next time.